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Notes on Recent Publications

Bakhtin provides an instructive illustration when he describes the illiterate peasant. Bakhtins peasant was a worshiper in a religious community, a comrade at the tavern, the paterfamilias in his family, and a citizen of a nation. For the most constructing we, you, and the others 15 part people move unconsciously among these different dialects and corresponding identities, but it is always possible that a person will be called into more active ideological identication with one of the social dialects and indeed use it as a means by which to scrutinize other ways of speaking and being.

Unfortunately, we do not have access to the ways Qumran sectarians actually talked. No tape recordings of their conversations were found among the scrolls. Yet from the beginning of Qumran scholarship, the elusive but distinctive style of the various sectarian writings has been noted. Admittedly, no two Qumran compositions possess exactly the same linguistic prole, and each text would share many socio-linguistic features with non- Qumran texts.

This is scarcely surprising. Social dialects do not have sharp boundaries. Even in living language communities, individuals speak distinct idiolects. Nevertheless, it is likely that the texts composed by members of the sectarian movement do preserve samples of the social dialect cultivated at Qumran. And scholarship has only begun to conduct the socio-linguistic analysis of Qumran sectarian literature and to analyze what it can suggest about the ways in which identity and community formation took place.

Two documents suggest themselves as particularly appropriate for such analysis: the Community Rule and the Hodayot. Although the precise nature of the Community Rule is uncertain, it is probably best understood as a guide composed for the communitys teacher, the Maskil, who was charged with a crucial role in the admission, instruction, and advancement of the members of the society. The Hodayot, especially 4 Bakhtin, Dialogic Imagination, However these prayers came to be composed, collected, and used, the rst-person singular style suggests that they formed templates of some sort for patterns of experience cultivated by the sectarian community.

The various means by which both of these texts served to reshape the individual and his language and to cultivate the sentiments of afnity and estrangement necessary for group formation are discussed at greater length in my recent book, The Self as Symbolic Space: Constructing Identity and Community at Qumran.

Here I wish to illustrate with a few examples how nonpolemical language is used for such purposes. The rst eleven lines of the Community Rule offers an excellent example of how the community recast the idioms of common Juda- ism into their own distinctive forms of speech. In doing so, they con- structed the Yahad as the we over against the others of the rest of the Jewish people.

The Rule begins, not with exclusively insider language, but rather with a sophisticated rhetorical movement that takes the language of the broader linguistic community of Judaism and gradually transforms it into the distinctive accents of the sectarian community. The passage contains a dense network of scriptural allu- sions and echoes, that is, the language that belongs both to us and to others.

Habits of speech are also habits of the mind, and I would argue that aspects of the ideology of Qumran are in fact reected even at the level of syntax and style. Thus, even when the content of the passage is what every Jew could endorse, the sectarian simply speaks differently. The other noteworthy thing about the passage involves its semantics. The passage divides into two parts that mirror one another, lines 17a and 7b Several formal literary devices articulate this structure. However, with the sentence that begins in line 7b and to bring in all who volunteer freely the specically sectarian diction is introduced.

To a signicant extent what had rst been expressed in common language is now restated in sectarian terms. Thus to love what he has chosen ll. Similarly, to do what is good and right before Him as he commanded by Moses and by all his servants the prophets ll. To make a sectarian one must remake his language. If one teaches him to speak differently, he will no longer be at home among those who speak a different social dialect.

The Yahad constructed new identities for its members by teaching them to speak in ways that were subtly but signicantly different from the ways in which others spoke, or, if they joined the community as adults, in ways that were different from those that they had used before. Very little is more closely identied with ones own self than speech. As a physical process, speech engages the body, but it is also an activity of the mind. In speaking, one actively takes up a subject position within a discourse.

Thus ownership of the discourse, and the identity that comes from it is strongly enhanced through the activity of speaking in its terms and accents. Thus it is important to look not only at texts that model new ways of speaking, like the beginning of the Serek ha-Yahad, but also to look at those speech practices by which individual sectarians themselves learned to make such speech their own. In the Serek ha-Yahad there are a signicant number of references to speech practices that would have served just such purposes. The most signicant are the examination for membership 1QS ; and the annual examination to determine ones ranking in the community Frustratingly, the text says little about how the examination was carried out.

The examination for membership was apparently public, for the person stands before the Many and is ques- tioned concerning his insight, his spirit, and his deeds with respect to Torah , 17, It is less clear whether the annual examina- tion was public, but the criteria are similar. Unfortunately, no account is given of the content or style of the examination, although I would suspect that the vocabulary and style with which the individual was to give an account of himself would be similar to the vocabulary and 18 carol a.

In any event, the individual had to learn how to speak about himself in ways that were approved by the community. Becoming increasingly adept at this articulation resulted in enhanced status. In this way a person internalized the identity of a member of the community by learning to represent himself in the distinctive social dialect of the sect. The issue of how discursive practices serve to confer identity upon a person who is entering into a well dened community has been of interest to anthropologists, and the study of the formation of sectarian identity in the Yahad may be illumined by such approaches.

A par- ticularly helpful series of studies is presented by Dorothy Holland and her associates in Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds. While a modern self-help group may seem a long way from the world of Qumran, some of the processes of identity formation are not that dissimilar. The research of Hollands group focused on how new mem- bers of Alcoholics Anonymous developed new identities by learning to tell their personal story i. The personal story in AA has certain standard elements: a characteristic plot, specic turning points, and even certain preferred terms and expres- sions.

Newer members rst listen to older members tell their stories. When new members begin to articulate their own stories, they will be challenged and corrected by older members if they deviate from the norms of the structure and paradigmatic events for the personal story.

Through this process, the anthropologists argue, the person becomes an alcoholic. Despite many obvious differences, the practice of the personal story in Alcoholics Anonymous is highly suggestive for the way in which the Hodayot may have functioned at Qumran in relation to the acquisition of a new identity.

We know little, unfortunately, about the actual use of the Hodayot at Qumran. I nd most plausible the suggestion originally made by Bo Reike that Qumran practice may have been similar to what Philo describes concerning the banquets of the Therapeutae, in which 9 D. Holland et al. Then others would similarly stand and recite such hymns. What is important is that the Hodayot are rst-person singular speech. A person who listened to such rst-person speech recited by others, who learned how to compose such a piece for himself, or who even took up and read such a piece as his own prayer would be drawn into a self-understanding shaped according to the patterns embedded in the Hodayot.

A pre-formed prayer that one appropriated for ones own would function in relation to the speaker in ways similar to the work of a creed I believe in God the Father or a pledge of allegiance I pledge allegiance to the ag. These speech acts strategically obscure who the speaking subject is. The ambiguity about exactly whose words these are the authors? Although the Hodayot borrow much from Israelite psalms, they change the syntax of religious speech. Whereas the Israelite thanksgiving psalm was correlated with the complaint psalm, at Qumran there are only thanksgivings.

Lament motifs are used in the Hodayot, but those motifs are always contained within a structure of speech that begins I thank you, O Lord or Blessed are you, because. Thus there is only one normative stance from which to speak. Moreover, whereas in Israelite psalmody the speaker is an active agent in his own story, crying out to God for help, the Hodayot remove moral agency from the speakers self account. The speaker becomes primarily a witness to the deitys gracious redemptive power. The Hodayot are often described as didactic, which they are.

Even more important than the theological content, however, is the fact that 11 B. Reike, Remarques sur lhistoire de la form Formgeschichte des textes de Qumran, in Les manuscrits de la mer Morte: Colloque de Strasbourg Mai ed. Danilou et al. A number of these patterns can be identied, but one of the most striking makes use of a sharp shift in point of view. First the speaker describes the powerful knowledge he has of divine mysteries e. Then abruptly, the perspective shifts and the speaker describes himself as he appears from a Gods-eye-view. These are Niedrigskeitsdoxologie passages in which the nothingness and corruption of the speakers human condi- tion is emphasized e.

The same emotional pattern can be identied also in the Maskils hymn that concludes the Serek ha-Yahad 1QS The frisson produced by the transition from the exaltation of heavenly mysteries to utter abnega- tion is analogous to that produced by standing on a mountain cliff, simultaneously exalted and terried by the heights and depths of the overwhelming environment. Both are examples of the sublime. Since the experience cultivated in the Hodayot crucially involves stimulating the sense of disgust at the speakers humanness, I call it the cultivation of the masochistic sublime.

This emotional pattern is quite different from what one nds in biblical psalmody and seems to be a distinctive pattern of subjectivity. A person who recites such rst-person prayers, for whom this becomes his own language becomes different from others outside the sect in a profound way. In other ways, too, the language a sectarian learns to speak and the sentiments he learns to hold by listening to or reciting the Hodayot ren- der alien alternative languages of piety.

One can observe this by taking a passage in which the Hodayot describe Gods gracious redemption of the speaker and the speakers own moral incapacity and setting it alongside texts such as Psalm and Sirach As is typical of the Hodayot, in 1QH a there is a relentless consistency in the way in which all moral initiative is attributed to God and utter moral incapacity is attributed to the speaker, even as the speaker largely uses the inherited moral vocabulary of Second Temple Judaism.

If one immerses oneself in this carefully shaped discourse, the language of a composition like Psalm sounds alien. A very different quality of self speaks in the psalm. In the psalm the speaker foregrounds himself in the language, saying I do this or I do that. The very number of verbs of which I is the subject is striking. The speakers inward gaze results in a brash self-recommendation as he unashamedly names his moral accomplishments. Ben Sira asserts that it was [God] who created humankind in the beginning, and he left them in the power of their own free choice.

If you choose, you can keep the command- ments, and to act faithfully is a matter of your own choice. He has placed before you re and water; stretch out your hand for whichever you choose Sir ; NRSV. Whereas Ben Sira says that God placed persons in the hand of their free will yetser , the speaker of 1QH a says that the inclination yetser of every spirit is in your hand. Whereas Ben Sira says, If you choose tahaphots , the hodayah says that it is Gods choosing baharta that rst makes obedience pos- sible 1QH a By contrast to the hodayahs subtle analysis of how the moral life is possible for one who lacks moral autonomy, Ben Siras advice appears as the equivalent of the shallow slogans Just do it or Just say no.

Not only Ben Siras language but also the persona that his language creates for him would have seemed awed to someone shaped in the Yahad. The comparison I have suggested here is purely heuristic. It is not intended to show how a sectarian actually read Sirach or Psalm but simply to illustrate how immersion in a particular discourse of piety can render alien and even repellant other possible forms of piety.

The community we have come to know as the Yahad cultivated senti- ments of afnity for the group and estrangement from other groups in a variety of ways. In this brief essay I have attempted to suggest that as scholars examine these various mechanisms, we need to pay as much attention to the non-polemical discourses of the community as we do to the explicitly polemical language of we and they.

Nickelsburg University of Iowa In an article published in in the Festschrift for Heinz Wolfgang Kuhn, 1 I took up the issue of Qumran sectarianism and argued that a group of texts evidently authored in the yahad or a closely related group reects a world view that portrays [the authors] group as the sole and exclusive arena of salvation and thus sees those who are not members of that community as cut off from Gods favor and bound for damnation. In a response to this article, Carol Newsom suggested that it would be useful set this world view and de facto denition in a continuum that takes into consideration texts whose world view and self-under- standing were not as narrow as the Community Rule, the Damascus Document, the Pesharim, the Hodayot, parts of 1 Enoch, and the Book of Jubilees.

In keeping with the topic of this conference, I will summarize my previous ndings and make a few observations about two other texts in the Qumran corpus whose identication of self and others diverges from the texts I previously examined. I must paint with very broad strokes. Geburtstag eds. Becker and W. Reprinted in George W. Neusner and A. The Community Rule Polarized language of self-denition takes at least two forms in the serek ha-yahad in its form in 1QS.

The community transforms biblical covenantal language about Israel to refer exclusively to itself. The yahad alone, is Israel, the community of the new covenant. Thus in the liturgy in 1QS 12, the priests pronounce blessings on the members of the group, but call down the curses of the covenant on the outsiders and on those who do not sincerely subscribe to the yahads Torah, which has been revealed to the sons of Zadok 1QS Thus, theologi- cally and sociologically, the groups self-denition transforms biblical language and conceptions by applying them exclusively to themselves.

All other Israelites are what the yahad is notoutside the bounds of divine mercy and blessing. In short, the existence of the community of the new covenant with the true, revealed Torah requires by denition the existence of its negative counterpart: other Israelites who have not renewed the covenant and are not privy to, and do not observe the Torah revealed to the leaders of the yahad. This polarization is systematized in the section on the two spirits 1QS The members of the yahad are the children of light, whom the Prince of Lights leads on the right way of obedience to the Torah, as opposed to non-yahad people, who are the children of darkness, whom the Prince of Darkness leads on the way of disobe- dience; and this polarization is built into the structure of the cosmos.

That is, the whole of humanity is construed in polarized terms. We, the true believers speaking theologically and the members of the covenant community speaking sociologically , are what everyone else is not. Moreover, the polarization is as radical as it can be religiously: the ares and the are-nots are partisans of God and anti-God. The Damascus Document The Admonitions of the Damascus Document set the foundation of the covenant community within the history of humanity, which is summarized in polarized terms CD From the time of the Watchers, Gods creation has consisted of those who walk on the right paths and those who stray.

The scheme of the two ways is evident, and 4Q 1ab 1 may indicate that this is associated with the polarity of the children of light and the children of darkness. Differ- polarized self-identification 25 ent from 1QS, CD portrays the Watchers as the principal non-human cause or exemplars of rebellion CD , perhaps following the Enochic myth that makes them the breeders of the demonic world 1 Enoch The Teacher of Righteousness, who knows Gods way, and those to adhere to his interpretations are pitted against the Scoffer, the slippery interpreters, and those who stray from the path by following them As in the serek ha-yahad, eternal blessings and curses follow.

Noteworthy in the Damascus Document is the eschatological setting of the communitys foundation. The Pesharim This eschatological perspective governs the pesharim, which depict con- temporary events as the fulllment of prophetic prediction. As in the Damascus Document, a polarized worldview governs the presentation of historical events and personalities. The Habakkuk Commentaryhow- ever we interpret the actual historical detailsfeatures the Teacher of Righteousness, the inspired interpreter of the Torah and the prophets 1QpHab ; , and the Man of Lies ; , The Dripper of Lies and The Wicked Priest ; ; ; , 8.

Polarity is written bold-face. There is the priest who speaks for God and the wicked priest ; , the inspired true expositor and the lying oracle ; Along with these go their respective communities: the Teacher of Righteousness and the men of truth, who observe his right, revealed Torah and believe in the covenant , and the Dripper of Lies, who founds a community by means of deceit Thus, the polarized language of opposites runs like a thread through the document and governs its portrayal of contem- porary events.

We and our leader are not what the others and their leader or leaders are. The Nahum Commentary portrays the dark side of this polarity in its polemical broadsides against the slippery interpreters, who with their deceitful teaching, their lying tongue and perdious lips lead many astray 4QpNah 34ii8. The author does not focus on the true 4 For this interpretation, see G.

The Hodayot The polarity of true and false teachers is especially explicit in the Hodayot, particularly in the composition in 12[4][5] Again, in identifying himself, the author must identify others as foils to himself; they are what I am not, and vice versa. In order properly to express who or what one is, one must bring ones opposite into the picture. The author is the recipient and dispenser of revelation. He whose face God has brightened with the divine covenant enlightens the face of the many and pours the drink of knowledge 1QH a , , This receipt and transmission of revealed knowledge is counterpoised by a critical account of the authors opponents, who ridicule and belittle him They change the Torah, giving vinegar rather than the drink of knowledge They claim to have their own visions The text is a compendium of religious polemical terminology that labels ones opponents as deceivers and liars: deceitful interpreters, who lead others astray and whose actions evidence folly; interpreters of falsehood and seers of deceit, who exchange the Torah for smooth things and who go astray; prophets of falsehood, who draw others into error; men of deceit and seers of error.

The authors teaching, moreover, takes place in the context of a communitythose who are sought by me, who were united together in your covenant and listened to me, who walked in the way of your heart and ordered themselves before you in the council of your holy ones The hymns of the community among the Hodayot deal with the issue of polarization in a different way.

The community is the realm of salvation. To enter the community is to be raised up from destruc- tive Sheol, the sphere of death, to heaven and eternal life 1QH a 11[3]; 19[11] The component parts of this polarized worldview, moreover, belong to the divine and demonic realms, and the consequences of this situation are life and death, salvation and damnation.

God and Belial, the children of light and the children of darkness, revealed truth and falsehoodit is with this white and black palette that these authors construct their portrait of reality. White can be seen as such only when it is shown to be the opposite of black, and there are no middle tones. Two Non-YAHAD Texts In order to clarify further my portrayal of this world view, I will engage in my own exercise in comparison, with some observations and ques- tions about two other texts from the Qumran corpus whose approach to the issue of self-identication is not that of the yahad texts.

The War Scroll In the War Scroll, the children of light and the children of darkness are Israel as a whole more or less and the nations, respectively, and the terms God of Israel, nation, and covenant relate to Israel as a whole over against the gentiles. How were this document and this terminology in it construed in a community that distinguished itself as the true Israel from those outside the community and thus outside the covenant and whose Com- munity Rule employed children of light and children of darkness to epitomize this distinction?

Nation: , 12; ; the holy ones of his nation, perhaps an exception ; your nation I. Covenant: ; ; ; ; , 10; , 8; , 8. A Hymn of the Pious and Righteous 11QPs a 18 This text is noteworthy because of its plethora of terms for the authors group. They are: the multitude of the upright Syriac Psalm , the faithful Syr. Ps , the good ones , 14 , the pure ones , the righteous , and the assembly of the pious These religiously positive terms suggest to the reader, and imply for the author I think, the existence of those who are their opposites: namely, the perverse, the unfaithful, the evil, the impure, the sinners, and those who are not pious.

And one may suppose that the Qumranites read the psalm within that frame of reference. Yet the psalm lacks the polemical use of a plethora of such antithetical terms. We hear rst of the simple or naive and those lacking in judgment, who are to be the object of instruction by the righteous 11QPs a , 45 , and then only briey of the wicked and haughty, who are, at least in part, the social rather than the religious enemies of the righteous The psalms descriptive emphasis is positive.

These are the things that the righteous and pious do: they praise God, they mediate on the Torah as they eat and drink in community They instruct those who are not at their level of religious insight and accomplish- ment , 45 rather than degrade them and vilify teachers of a different persuasion. Thus these two texts from the Qumran corpusthe one using polar- izing language to distinguish between Israel and the gentiles, and the other identifying the author and his group as the righteous and pious without focusing on those who are their religious polar oppositeshelp to place in perspective the yahad texts, which are saturated with polar- izing language that identies the group and its teachers not in their own right, but in contradistinction to individuals, groups, and teachers of different persuasion and practice.

Four Generalizing Observations A later form of the kind of polarizing tradition I have described whether or not it is historically connected with the yahadis found at many points in the New Testament. These texts claim that the church is the sole arena of salvation, which has been constituted by escha- tological revelation not about right Torah, but about Jesus, the nal and unique agent of Gods activity in the world. Its openness to the polarized self-identification 29 gentiles notwithstanding, the church is an exclusivistic Jewish sect with a construction of reality that has much in common with the yahad.

While it is often claimed that ancient Judaismin contrast to Chris- tianitywas characterized by orthopraxy rather than orthodoxy, the yahad texts reveal a Judaism that does not fully t this generalization. Of course, the religion of the Qumranites centered around the observance of the Torah, but the polemics against false teachers in some of the pesharim and in the Hodayot parallel in a curious way later christo- logical debates about the right and wrong understanding of the person of Jesus and his relationship to God.

This is especially obvious if one recognizes the functional parallel between Torah in Jewish religion and Jesus in Christian religion. For the Qumran Jews, Orthopraxy requires orthodidaskalia in contrast to heterodidaskalia. I have described polarization in the yahad as a religious phenomenon realized in a social context.

However, as is evident in Gordon Allports seminal work, The Nature of Prejudice, 7 and as has become clear, for example, in the political life of the United States, polemical polarizing self-identication is a broad human phenomenon that is not restricted to religious groupsthough the high stakes and the values that often drive this polarization have a dimension that Paul Tillich would prob- ably describe as religious. Much that I have said may suggest that I am a theological reduc- tionist. However, as has been emphasized by the work of H. Richard Niebuhr, Gordon Allport, Werner Stark, Bryan Wilson, 8 and many who are sitting in this room, we can properly understand human conduct and the ideas that often drive it only when we consider their psychological dimensions and social context.

A Concluding Unscientific Postscript There remains one body of textual evidence that does not integrate easily into my thesis about the sectarian mentality of the Hodayot and 7 G. Allport, The Nature of Prejudice abr. In the Hodayot, where a teacher and leader of the community can contrast himself with lying and perverse teachers, and where a sectarian can praise God from having brought him into the community and thus rescued him from death and damnation, in at least ve compositions, the authors confess that they stand in solidarity with a humanity that is clay, dust, and ashes.

A satisfying solution to these theological tensions would requires a detailed exegetical discussion that compares the sectarian proclivities of the Hodayot and 1QS with these evident disparities. Here I can make only a few suggestions. In at least two of the Hodayot, these passages describe the condition of the sectarian before he enters the community, where he receives divine knowledge and is brought into communion with the angels 1QH a 19[11]; 11[3] In these cases, the authors deprecating descriptions of their humanity nicely serve their sectarian worldview.

This is what I was; this is what I have become. One thanks God for having rescued him from the hoard of humanity bound for perdition. Nonetheless, it is my impression that the rhetoric in question may also pertain to the authors present condition 11[3]b25; 18[10] This appears also to be the case in the hymn of the maskil in 1QH a 20[12] Although one has access to divine enlightenment, one remains a son of man, born of woman, shaped from dust and clay, and in need of divine mercy and help.

It is noteworthy that the editor of 1QS should include material with this kind of anthropology in a text that earlier divides humanity into two opposing groups, belonging to God and to the Prince of Darkness, and the tension between the two 9 1QH 9[1]; 11[3]; 18[10]; 19[11]; 20[12]]. Moreover, we should note, Qumranic ideas about rank notwithstanding, this ambiguous status delivered and standing among the angels, but clay and dust, and in danger and thus need of divine help is ascribed both to the ordinary sectarian 1QH a 11[3], 19[11] and to the maskil.

At the very least, we may see in this tension a religiosity that wisely and realistically seeks to temper high and optimistic sectarianism with an honest assessment of the dangers associated with unmitigated self-righteousness. The topic is worthy of fuller and more precise study, and one may nd some help in the Pauline corpus e. Davies University of Shefeld The topic of Israel in the Qumran texts embraces issues of both identity and difference. The language of many of the scrolls, and especially those that describe or represent a sectarian community, emphasizes identity with Israel and at the same time difference from it.

The sect is the true Israel and the historical Israel, its social parent, is not. In the case of the Scrolls, in fact, there are three Israels in play: the sect; the discredited entity of the past, a nation punished by exile; and a continuing, equally discredited entity, the contemporary Jewish society outside the sect. The last two can in fact easily be merged or their identities blurred through typology.

However, the legitimacy of the sect, the true Israel, depends not just on differentiation but on a continuity of identity with the discredited Israel of the past. This ambiguity of identity and difference over Israel is best illus- trated in the Damascus Document. Here the connection between what I shall for convenience call the old and the new Israel is one of both continuity and rupture: the old Israel was brought to an end, but it continues in the form of a remnant.

The double use of Israel here in rst a negative then a positive sense, to denote the old then the new, underlines the identity, the continuity. Yet, this new surviving Israel also describes itself as refounded through a new covenant, with its own divine revelation and with a new founder, and thus claims to be not so much an Israel recovered as an Israel reborn. The continuity here is less tangibleremembranceand the language suggest a new start rather than a continuation. I am not suggesting two distinct or contradictory presenta- tions within the document here, but rather an attempt to preserve an ideologically useful and important ambiguity: the sect is Israel and it is not.

The transition from old to new Israel, or the replacement of one Israel by another, follows punishment and exile CD , Nebuchadnez- zar; , given up to the sword and therefore clearly invokes the scriptural history.

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Some time after the Persians replaced the Neo- Babylonians, Judean immigrants from Babylonia established themselves as the rightful bearers of the identity of Israel by virtue of being a remnant who alone had remained faithful; according to the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, they swore a new covenant and adopted the law of Moses Neh The denition of Israel accepted by those who wrote and read the book s of Ezra and Nehemiah is also a group preserved from the ruins of old Israel, and bound to Israels god by law and covenant.

They term themselves children of the exile bny hgwlh: Ezra ; ; etc. Paradoxically, in these texts the rupturing exile becomes in fact proof of Israelite identity. In the Damascus Document we encounter a related strategy. First, like the prayer in Nehemiah 9, CD dwells at length on the sinful history of old Israel before it describes its new covenant. Next, exile is the place and the experience of both continuity and rupture.

In both stories, exile is the moment of either transition or rebirth, the moment that denes the new Israel over against the old one. So important is the experience of exile that included in both texts is a presentation of genealogies and names. Ezra, of course, does not merely bring the law but has it interpreted to the people who hear it Neh These remarkable, detailed parallels must be due either to direct modelling of D on Ezra and Nehemiah, or to some ideological matrix, or to a shared historical tradition that informed both texts. If the D account is indeed meant to be understood in relation to the story of Ezra-Nehemiah, then is a retelling of that story or a substitute, meant to refute it?

One early interpretation of CD was that the stories related to the same events and that the Interpreter of the Law in D was one or other of the biblical characters. D also denies that the exile is over, the claim of a restoration in Ezra and Nehemiah being rejected. However, the restoration of Judah under the Persians is really a scholarly rather than a biblical concept: Ezras speech in Nehemiah suggests something different. Behold, we are slaves today: in the land that you gave our ancestors to enjoy its fruit and its benets we are slaves in it: it yields a good surplus for the kings you have set over us because of our sins.

So the punishment for sins continues here too, and the account is ideologically not far removed from that of D. Indeed, the eschatologi- cal undertone in Ezras speech cannot be overlooked here: there is an implied hope that the slavery will one day be averted when the sins are nally forgivenagain, as also in D, whose narrative at this point looks forward to the teaching of righteousness in the end of days Other commentators have suggested that the story of the foun- dation of the sect is placed in a different set of circumstances from Ezra and Nehemiah, and thus the Babylonian exile is simply part of Israels history and the sects prehistory.

Stegemann, Die Entstehung der Qumrangemeinde Bonn: priv. Whether or not there may be a chronological gap, there is no ideological one: the old, dead covenant is replaced by the Damascus one, and there is no other mentioned in between. So either the Ezra-Nehemiah episode and covenant is bracketed out, or the Ezra-Nehemiah episode is overwritten with an alternative account. That overwriting might be typological, applying a canonical format to the birth of this new Israel, without denying the historical facticity of the episode, or it might represent a denial that such a covenant was ever really made, that there ever was any other new Israel.

The fact that no copy of Nehemiah was found at Qumran may be signicant, and indeed, even the one manuscript of Ezra contains only fragments of the rst part of that book, i. It is possible that this fragment does not represent the Masoretic shape of Ezra-Nehemiah. Is it linked to the virtual absence of Chronicles 4QChr could well be from a textually variant manuscript of 2 Kings? What does the absence of any reference to either Ezra or Nehemiah in the Qumran corpus suggest in this respect?

Incidentally, it is ironic that the ancient Israel of modern schol- arship, and especially of archaeology, the Israel of the Iron Age, the pre-exilic Israel, is an Israel than the scriptures themselves, as much as the Qumran manuscripts, condemn for its sins. It is not to be glo- ried or emulated. Perhaps now and then individuals achieved near- perfection, but in total it was represented as a history of sin, failure and punishment. It is not the old Israel but the new Israel s that matter for early Judaism. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube.

Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Volume 24 , Issue 4 October Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. It is far too heavy for late-night reading. Noonan supports his thesis of dynamic moral development well by his use of history.

As humankind the Church included grows in its understanding of the teaching of Jesus, magisterial teaching must reflect the new understandings and insights. The Church remains faithful by changing. Thus, it truly can and cannot change. He is presently the vocation director for the Province of St. John the Baptist. Guest Book: Their Jihad Not My Jihad! Not My Jihad , is quite stunning to a non-Muslim okay, white guy reader.

Essentially a peace activist, Raza pleads for everyone to just stop, look around and listen to each other. By describing traditions of her own culture, whether it be arranged marriages more like arranged dating or prayer services, Raheel makes the strange familiar and and the unknown clear, illuminatiing her own beliefs and particularly how they differ from some more traditional Muslim ways while, sometimes humorously, exposing misconsceptions on both sides.

Incredibly, Raza is also a very liberated woman, exploding the last preconceptions of Muslim womanhood. This is a really important book, so much so that I can say with confidence that reading it will change, not maybe your life, but the way that you look at everything regarding this 21st-century so-called holy war.

If nothing else, the book should reclaim the word "jihad" from the zealots and restore its true meaning of "to strive. The setting is a lush, freshly formed Garden of Eden, where Eve is just awakening to the all-wise, feathered Serpent who is her guardian. Nearby, Adam is being raised by a cranky, white-bearded God intent on seeing that His creations adhere to His vision. But the Serpent has something far different in mind for its charge, and under the Serpent's painstaking tutelage, Eve begins to think and to question.

Journeys with the Serpent outside the garden give Eve a breadth and depth of knowledge forbidden to Adam, who learns to fear a god who is both capricious and demanding. Despite the Serpent's strenuous objections, God insists that Adam and Eve mate, and the event turns into a rape, for which Eve is loath to forgive either God or Adam.

Only later, when the Serpent changes form, becomes a man, and makes love to Eve, is she prepared to accept her central role as the mother of humankind. Even then, however, she's still not ready to forgo her independence. Although the Serpent explains all the hardship that will come to her if she eats the apple from the Tree of Knowledge, she accepts the challenge to become a fully realized human, as does Adam, who, though lacking Eve's strength, also yearns to be his own person. In an author's note, Aidinoff explains that she has drawn on lore that equates the Serpent to Wisdom, who is said to have been with God at the creation, and the smart, empathetic, even romantic Serpent will evoke the most response from teenagers God is certainly one-dimensional by comparison.

The story at times is overly descriptive. It is at its best during the dialogues between Eve and the Serpent, when age-old questions are asked and real answers are given--although not necessarily the answers that have been accepted for ages. For instance, when the Serpent asks Eve what she thinks of the songs of praise God has taught her and Adam, Eve wonders, "Why does God need to be adored all the time? We know he made the sea and the dry land and all the rest.

Why does he have to hear it over and over again? Perhaps most disturbing is the scene in which God urges Adam to take Eve against her will. Some readers, however, will find the book liberating--a meditation on the role of humanity in the world and on the compromises people make when they choose freedom instead of obedience. All rights reserved --This text refers to the Library Binding edition. She is far more precious than jewels. The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. A great page turner packed with fascinating insight!

Did you know the Noah flood story was predated thousands of years earlier as Sumerian, Babylonian, Akkadian story among many other cultures too and the Proverbs and Wisdom texts have been around on Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets long before they got into the Hebrew and Greek Bible. A lovely and lively read, endlessly interesting and fun too! I highly recommend this as it gives insight into understanding our Bible, the New and Old Testament. Very informative and thoroughly interesting! He is an amazing writer and researcher and his enthusiasm and scholarship, sense of fun and knowledge shine through on every page!

Enjoy reading this great book! The professor, the teacher you wish you had at school, college or university! Her determination, focus, and efficency are an intimidating set. She knew where God and the church were calling her, and she followed. This book is very well written, especially for preteens who are looking for a positive role model. I highly recommend this book not only to Anglicans or feminists, but to anyone interested in making a difference. May it be the first swallow that announces the coming of spring'-Metropolitan Anthony of Sourozh England. This book, by a leading theolgian, is a serious reexamination of the role of women in the Church.

For Orthodox and Roman Catholics, especially, the question of women's ordination must be asked 'from the inside' and not only 'from the outside'. This book does not suggest final answers, but raises issues and defines their relative importance. Sergius Seminary for over 40 years on Orthodox Spirituality. The leading Orthodox woman at meetings with Christians and others throughout the world on issues of women and their relationship to the Church. Behr-Sigel, now over 90 years old, continues to write and lecture on this and other important issues. For our own womenpriests.

Flinders From Publishers Weekly: In an intriguing combination of personal and scholarly prose, Flinders Enduring Grace works through the details of her attempt to reconcile the conflicts she found between her "commitments to feminism" and her "spiritual path and practices. But how can these women's and her own experiences of peace and God jibe with the often angry feminist Flinders finds herself to be? In historical context, she examines today's sexism and violence against women? Flinders concludes that reclaiming the ancient "sacred feminine" is not at odds with political feminism, but rather necessary for it.

In the spirit of Women Who Run with the Wolves and Reviving Ophelia , this book has the potential to change women's lives. For an interview with the author, see our post 64 in our thread Feminism and Catholicism. Writing with grace, in a style that is both personal and informed Flinders has a Ph. The result is a real gift: a delightful introduction to these extraordinary women. It's like he can see into my brain and totally understand the internal conflict I am going through between the church and the world. Has anyone read this guy before? We women beneath the nailed hands are light of head, fickle of heart, no court in the land will trust our word.

If banned by law, who will say yes to our report, the blaze cremating all our logic. No, no one builds on shifting sand. You need a rock, like Peter to whom he says Get, behind me, Satan. Only he will lead. Christ sends his Magdalene to him who keeps the keys. Go, tell the news to him who weeps. He started writing poetry when he was years-old. Rolheiser develops a Christian spirituality that he believes offers some definite direction for seekers. At the heart of a healthy Christian spiritual life, he says, there must be four essentials: "private prayer and private morality; social justice; mellowness of heart and spirit; and community as a constitutive element of true worship.

If Christians can focus on the embodied character of their theology, then the four essentials of Christian spirituality become easier to embrace. In the latter half of the book, Rolheiser develops sketches of a spirituality of community ecclesiology , a spirituality of sexuality and a spirituality of justice and peacemaking.

We can sustain ourselves in the spiritual life, he notes, by being a mystic, sinning bravely, gathering ritually around the Word and breaking the bread, and worshipping and serving the right God. Rolheiser's program for Christian spirituality is reminiscent of the best work of Henri Nouwen and Daniel Berrigan. He is a community-builder, lecturer and writer. His books are popular throughout the English-speaking world and his weekly column is carried by more than sixty newspapers worldwide.

He is from my home province, Saskatchewan. He makes a lot of sense to me. When asked about advice for women in the Church today, he shared the following: Q: Many Christians struggle for hope right now -- particularly women. Optimism is based on looking at things and asking, 'Is it getting better or worse empirically? Hope is based on promise and on a long-term view. It says, 'God promised the Spirit. God promised guidance. God promised the Kingdom. For example, all the women who initially worked for the vote never voted.

But today women vote. The struggle for full equality for women is a long struggle. Again, that has to be sustained by hope—not by optimism. Hope is not about where the stock market or CNN is on a particular day. I admire Ron Rolheiser and appreciate his writings so much. I read Holy Longing 6 or 7 years ago. I remember wanting to buy copies for everyone in my family.

He is an excellent writer. He contributes a weekly column in The Prairie Messenger great Catholic newspaper. I find him spiritual, grounded, and entirely connected to the real world. Thanks for the link to his website. I am going to explore it. Are you done your thesis? The Virgin Mary is a ubiquitous but enigmatic presence in Christian history and culture of interest to all Christians.

Dr Beattie and Dr Boss, two leading Marian scholars, have assembled a reader of essential texts, drawing on both Eastern and Western traditions and the book opens up whole new avenues for theological and spiritual enquiry. Starting with the New Testament, the texts assembled draw from the Early Fathers, the great medieval writers like St Bernard of Clairvaux and right up to contemporaries such as Marina Warner.

This Marian Reader will be essential for anyone who has a strong theological or devotional interest in Mary, but it will also open the eyes of those who do not. It's a truth that we of the twenty-first century most urgently need to learn in order to heal the experience of alienation that has become endemic to our age. And these odd and appealing ancient figures, surprisingly, hold keys to this healing. The book includes an appendix of selections from the teachings of the Desert Monks. In Where God Happens, he combines his roles by examining the ancient wisdom of the Desert Monks and interpreting the relevance of their teaching for Christian spirituality today.

In the early monastics' search for the experience of God and an alternative style of community, he finds a new and deeper faith for the postmodern world. This compelling work of scholarship and spirituality shows why the Archbishop of Canterbury is truly a breath of fresh air and one of the most important and hopeful church leaders we have today. Did you know that Mary, Mother of Jesus was not silent, submissive! She was NOT a perpetual virgin either but a fiesty woman of action who had other children too. Cahill shows us to how the Magnificat echoes more ancient Hebrew songs of empowerment.

Cahill reveals the great coverup and scandal of pedophilia in the RC church and how the cover up still goes on. Cahill also shows how Paul's writings in Corinthians and Galatians are clarion calls for women's equality. This book is full of wit, humour and easy to digest scholarship. Highly recommended! Kung shows bravery and integrity and suffered much from the repression forced on him by the institution of the Catholic church, including secret trials by the Doctrine of Faith.

Kung is writing a new book about his struggles with the Catholic hierarchy and his fight to remain true to the Gospel of Jesus and academic integrity and freedom. Kung is above all a priest of the church who allows us to develop our faith and love our religion and the Gospel. God bless our church and Hans Kung! We are so lucky to have such great men of integrity and belief. God bless. Guest I have heard Hans Kung referred to sometimes as the 'Pope' of conscience.

He is a great man who's love for our community is evident. Barbara Colorosa was in the Religious Orders and has since become a mother, and author of many great books about social, educational and psychological health of children and adults and about the real dangers and analysis and steps to prevent, or recognize, or deal with and stop bullying.

The contempt of women taught by books like The Hammer Against Witches written in 's by Dominican priest led to the genocide of a million women and men who supported and tried to protect them of the Inquisition from to Bullying, teaching theology of contempt and exclusion does lead to the evil of exclusion and murder. She asserted and fought for the ideal that nations shouldn't invade and occupy others for the sake of empire building, a message to contemplate in today's political landscape.

But it's unfair to read our contemporary concerns back into her 15th-century story, says Spoto. In this engaging and at times gripping biography, he examines Joan's life and particularly her faith in the face of a church threatened by her visions. Spoto details what is known or surmised about Joan's early life and military career, but the book's most fascinating aspect is the suspenseful day-by-day account of her year-long trial and conviction for heresy. Here we see the Maid's as she called herself sense of God's instructions for her life, and her efforts to obey God above all else, including earthly church authority.

Spoto helps us understand her threat to political and ecclesiastical figures. The only person to have been condemned for heresy and later sainted, Joan of Arc continues to capture the popular imagination and is, Spoto argues, "the sign that God is free to act as He wills to act, not as we presume He ought to act. During the tumultuous Hundred Years' War between England and France, a teenage peasant girl followed her heart and helped save a nation.

A vision from God, received in her parents' garden, instructed her to take up arms and help restore the kingdom of France. Without consulting her family, Joan left home on one of the most remarkable personal quests in history. As a young girl in a world of men, she faced unimaginable odds, yet her belief in her mission propelled her forward.

Within months Joan was directing soldiers and bravely fighting for her nation. Before long she had become a national hero and was the guest of honor at her king's coronation. Yet fame ultimately became her undoing. The English shrewdly realized that Joan's demise and defamation would disgrace France and provide a more direct route to victory. Captured in war, Joan became a pawn in one of the longest and bloodiest wars in history. Since her death at the age of nineteen in , Joan of Arc has maintained a remarkable hold on our collective imagination. She was a teenager of astonishing common sense and a national heroine who led men in battle as a courageous warrior.

Yet she was also abandoned by the king whose coronation she secured, betrayed by her countrymen, and sold to the enemy. In this meticulously researched landmark biography, Donald Spoto expertly captures this astonishing life and the times in which she lived. Neither wife nor nun, neither queen nor noblewoman, neither philosopher nor stateswoman, Joan of Arc demonstrates that anyone who follows their heart has the power to change history. I have never read a biography that affected me so deeply as a Catholic or as a woman.

It belongs everywhere people realize that sanctity is always about more than the rules of an institution. Any institution. Vatican II was the catalyst for a renewed image of church. One of the results of this renewed vision was a deeper understanding of discipleship and call to proclaim the kingdom of God.

Women in particular have heeded this call, preparing themselves professionally as parish and pastoral ministers. She weaves their stories into her own journey, giving insights about how the call to ministry discipleship finds it inspiration in the documents of Vatican II which called "all the baptized to claim [their] dignity as daughters and sons in Christ Jesus our Lord. She calls the church to listen to the experience of women, revisit the history of early Christianity in terms of the gifts of the Spirit to the church, and be open to experience a new way of being church with women and men as partners in ministry and leadership.

The first two chapters in particular offer valuable insight and praxis on the process of theological reflection and discernment which continues each day in the experience of highs and lows, successes and failures while ministering to others. In fact the whole book may be looked upon as a process of discernment of vocation. Much of the book confronts us with the question of 'why God calls [women to ministry] while the church refuses to mandate her calling in any formal way.

The author captures the love, hope, joy and fulfilment that women experience in the vocational call to ministry in the church. The voices of the women are equally passionate in expressing the heartrending frustration, grief and anguish they experience in this time of 'pruning, testing and transitions for the Catholic Church. In it Halter recounts the history of women's roles in the Catholic church, throwing into sharp relief the dramatically different attitudes held by the Church toward women and men.

Women are still seen as docile beings defined by their relationships to men. Despite the Church's recent claims of women's dignity, the idea that Jesus and the apostles after him did not "choose" women for leadership office persists in various guises into the present day and continues to undergird the Church's refusal to ordain women. And while most of us tend to think of the Church's position concerning lay women and nuns as historically monolithic, the author reveals fascinating examples of women who have successfully taken on much larger, more priestly roles, sometimes under perilous conditions.

I enjoyed seeing the ironic paradoxes in the Church's position over time. And, I liked reading a charming narrative interlaced throughout the book about the life of St. Therese of Lisieux, a Carmelite nun in 19th Century France, who never lost her fierce desire to become a priest. This compelling book is suitable for anyone--male or female, Catholic or not, teenager or adult--who rejects the notion that women's God-given gifts and calling to ministry should be limited by a church controlled by a hierachy of powerful men who have yet to recognize women as equals.

It is a clarion call that the time has come to ordain women. Kung cogently develops his arguments with quotes from leading theologians and sociologists and historians. An excellent book. It is about a woman and her child and grandfather who must cope with the religious intolerance spreading like wildfire across Europe. They earn a living illuminating precious books, including forbidden vernacular translations of the Bible.

The authorities start butning books and people Brenda Rickman Vantrease brings us a richly imagined and immensely rewarding novel of love, faith and danger. She has crafted a suspenseful and eye opening tale of love and war, religion and murder. This was the challenge faced by Marie-Louise Ternier-Gommers as she discovered a genuine gift for preaching.

This is the autobiographical story of a young Catholic woman in the Netherlands, inspired by Taize and Jean Vanier, who fell in love with a Canadian, and moved to a new country and a new way of experiencing God. She pursued theological studies and "found her voice" in a Church that will -- as yet -- still not mandate her call. Her book shares hope and inspiration, witnessing to God's unlimited creativity in working within Church structures, and attempting to rise above them. Lucid, lively, persuasive - should be required reading for ecclesiologists, church historians, theologists of ministry and seminarians, systematically and cogently refutes Rome's arguments against women's ordination.

We are indebted to their brilliant scholarship and dedication. In Mediterranean society women regularly led their congregations and bravely organized and maintained the growing numbers of followers and churches. Cogent and convincing, drawing upon scholarship and archeological evidence, Torjesen asserts that sexism and misogyny that remain in the church today do not derive from Jesus and his first fiollowers-who radically challenged conventions about gender and status. This exclsion is therefore absolutely wrong. Guest this is a great book.

It would be appropriate, however, to cite the source and writer of the review, as well as the publisher of the book. I certainly will do just ask you suggest. Several of your books have been mentioned during our discussions as has the Prairie Messenger. We are grateful for your presence here!

I look forward to hearing more from you. Sophie Dear Marie-Louise, Here is a copy of the review with the addition as you have requested. Let me know if something is not quite right! Novalis Frontenac Street, Montreal, Que. H2H 2S2. Nothing is known about her other than her Latin name, that she was an apostle, and that she was in Rome when St. Paul wrote his letter to the Romans. She is listed with others in Romans , by a man named Andronicus, who with her are called apostles by St.

For many centuries, Junia was thought to have actually been a man by the name of Junias. Eldon Epp shows how this error came about and how she recovered her true gender. Most likely a copyist in the Middle Ages was copying the Letter to the Romans, saw the name Junia and knew enough Latin to know the name was feminine.

Another possible reason for the gender reversal was that translators and exegetes could not accept a woman being an apostle, their mindsets being too male oriented. Epp and others reveals that Junias is not a name in Latin - there are no surviving inscriptions or anything else with that name.

Coordinates for a Comprehensive Understanding of 4 Ezra

Junia was not one of the Twelve Apostles named by Jesus; she was probably a lesser apostle, even more so than St. Barnabas the apostle is known as. Epp has written a short book, but it covers the topic very well. He provides the overwhelming evidence in a convincing if quite academic way. He refers to several bible scholars of various denominations, presenting all the technical scholarly materials to prove that Junia was a woman and that she was declared an apostle by St.

A quarter of the book is devoted to endnotes and a bibliography. Epp calls Junia the first woman apostle; one tradition says that St. Mary Magdalene was the apostle to the Apostles. She was told by the Risen Christ to tell his Apostles that he has risen from the dead. Junia, though, is probably the first woman to have her name listed in Scripture as an apostle. People interested in the issue of women in the Church will want this book. Benet Exton, O. This is considered a very enlightening exposition of the Gospel of Mary.

Sophie Dear friends, Somewhere, someone along our way mentioned a book I was not familiar with -- The Hammer of the Witches. While gathering a number of items for our community, I came across this short BBC radio documentary about the book. The Malleus Maleficarum , or The Hammer of the Witches was an examination of the supernatural, and a guide on how to identify and try a witch. Some feminist historians have blamed it for sending thousands of women to their deaths — others say those claims are grossly over blown.

Now for the first time in nearly 80 years the Malleus has been re-translated and re-issued. However, most modern scholars believe that Jacob Sprenger contributed little, if anything to the work besides his illustrious name. Heresy in this sense was an error in understanding and of faith in the Catholic religion, ultimately discernible by God alone.. This papal bull would be used as the preface for the Malleus Maleficarum. The Summis desiderantes affectibus recognized the existence of witches and gave full papal approval for the Inquisition against witches and gave permission to do whatever necessary to get rid of them, thus opening the door for the bloody witch hunts that ensued for centuries.

Maybe my computer is too old or I am not hitting the right buttons but I can not hear the broadcast. That is interesting they republished the book. How Many pages? Was it in Latin? Translated in many languages to help spread the murder and mayhem. Teach a theology of hate and contempt of women and look how femicide occurs.

Ran out of people to take their property from Jews so they targeted Cathars because women and men were equal ministers and no hierarchy in Cathars, then targeted Beguines and Alibergenes because the women wanted dowry autonomy, then targeted women, midwives, healers and widows with property. What terror women lived under from to Last woman burned in ? Wikipedia Thanks for this I don't know enough about this period in history Last summer, I had the opportunity to watch the film The Burning Times.

Although I understand that the magnitude of statistics in it have been challenged, no matter what the stats, it was moving viewing nonetheless. The moderator of the film presentation shared interesting information. I think I shared it here a while ago. We may have baggage to deal with which at present we have no means to identify or assess.

The result for the witches and heretics most of who were midwives, herbalists, counsellors, etc The following gives a bit broader idea of what she shared: The Ghost in Your Genes:The scientists who believe your genes are shaped in part by your ancestors' life experiences. Biology stands on the brink of a shift in the understanding of inheritance. The discovery of epigenetics — hidden influences upon the genes — could affect every aspect of our lives.

At the heart of this new field is a simple but contentious idea — that genes have a 'memory'. That the lives of your grandparents — the air they breathed, the food they ate, even the things they saw — can directly affect you, decades later, despite your never experiencing these things yourself. And that what you do in your lifetime could in turn affect your grandchildren.

The conventional view is that DNA carries all our heritable information and that nothing an individual does in their lifetime will be biologically passed to their children. To many scientists, epigenetics amounts to a heresy, calling into question the accepted view of the DNA sequence — a cornerstone on which modern biology sits. Epigenetics adds a whole new layer to genes beyond the DNA. It proposes a control system of 'switches' that turn genes on or off — and suggests that things people experience, like nutrition and stress, can control these switches and cause heritable effects in humans.

In a remote town in northern Sweden there is evidence for this radical idea. Marcus Pembrey, a Professor of Clinical Genetics at the Institute of Child Health in London, in collaboration with Swedish researcher Lars Olov Bygren, has found evidence in these records of an environmental effect being passed down the generations. They have shown that a famine at critical times in the lives of the grandparents can affect the life expectancy of the grandchildren.

This is the first evidence that an environmental effect can be inherited in humans. In other independent groups around the world, the first hints that there is more to inheritance than just the genes are coming to light. The mechanism by which this extraordinary discovery can be explained is starting to be revealed. Professor Wolf Reik, at the Babraham Institute in Cambridge, has spent years studying this hidden ghost world.

He has found that merely manipulating mice embryos is enough to set off 'switches' that turn genes on or off. For mothers like Stephanie Mullins, who had her first child by in vitro fertilisation, this has profound implications. It means it is possible that the IVF procedure caused her son Ciaran to be born with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome — a rare disorder linked to abnormal gene expression. It has been shown that babies conceived by IVF have a three- to four-fold increased chance of developing this condition.

And Reik's work has gone further, showing that these switches themselves can be inherited. This means that a 'memory' of an event could be passed through generations. A simple environmental effect could switch genes on or off — and this change could be inherited. His research has demonstrated that genes and the environment are not mutually exclusive but are inextricably intertwined, one affecting the other. The idea that inheritance is not just about which genes you inherit but whether these are switched on or off is a whole new frontier in biology.

It raises questions with huge implications, and means the search will be on to find what sort of environmental effects can affect these switches. After the tragic events of September 11th , Rachel Yehuda, a psychologist at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, studied the effects of stress on a group of women who were inside or near the World Trade Center and were pregnant at the time. Produced in conjunction with Jonathan Seckl, an Edinburgh doctor, her results suggest that stress effects can pass down generations.

Meanwhile research at Washington State University points to toxic effects — like exposure to fungicides or pesticides — causing biological changes in rats that persist for at least four generations. This work is at the forefront of a paradigm shift in scientific thinking. It will change the way the causes of disease are viewed, as well as the importance of lifestyles and family relationships. What people do no longer just affects themselves, but can determine the health of their children and grandchildren in decades to come. Unknown to the outside world, he winds up in an impoverished Italian village where his adventures ultimately teach the Pope and his new friends some important lessons about friendship and self-esteem.

It has pithy quotes from and about saints and religion as well as great informative text..

Secondary Literature

Sophie Women Officeholders in the Early Church Thanks to the painstaking work of contemporary scholars, we now have compelling evidence that women held leadership and ministerial roles in the early church similar to those held by men. Inscriptions and images found on papyri, tombstones, frescos and mosaics show early Christian women served as apostles, prophets, teachers of theology, priests, deacons, stewards, enrolled widows and even bishops. Christine Schenk.

It is an introduction to the work of two scholars: Ute Eisen and Dorothy Irvin. Eisen's book: Women Officeholders in Early Christianity Liturgical Press, is an exhaustive study of the literary and epigraphical evidence for women officeholders from the ancient Church to the Middle Ages.

Full text of "The Quran in Context - Historical and Literary Investigations"

Dorothy Irvin holds a pontifical doctorate in Catholic Theology from the University of Tubingen, Germany with specialization in bible, ancient near eastern studies and archeology. For the last twenty years she has been an active field archeologist. Her calendars: The Archeology of Women's Traditional Ministries in the Church have made recent discoveries more widely accessible to the general public. Attractively presented, the word monograph includes a map of the Mediterranean world showing where archeologic data about women priests, deacons and bishops was found as well as line drawings of ancient inscriptions produced by archeologist Dorothy Irvin.

Is that make sense to you? I appreciate your presence here and thank you for your help with this. Eisen, Linda M. It gives us more information about what was happening in the lives of Jesus's followers in the decades after his death.

  • Darwins Ghosts: In Search of the First Evolutionists.
  • CandyGirl TypeB (Japanese Edition)!
  • Holistische Innovation: Konzept, Methodik und Beispiele (German Edition).
  • in the Dead Sea Scrolls.

For understanding the early history of Christianity, the Gospel of Judas is tremendously important. It is safe to say that it is the most significant Christian text to appear in the past sixty years. Given the enormous impact that Christianity has made in our world, it is incumbent to explain how this religion came into being. Especially important - and especially difficult to document - is what happened in the early years of the faith.

The more we can understand how Christianity became the religion it did, the better we can explain our roots as participants in the enormous phenomena we might think as Western civilizatiion. One problem with understanding the early centuries of Christianity is that our sources are sparse because most people living in the Roman Empire were illiterate unable to leave us written records of what was happening. They are sparse because most of the evidence produced by a small minority of Christians who were literate came to be destroyed or lost in succeeding generations.

Alternative versions of the history of the church were suppressed or simply lost. As a result for most of Christian history we have heard only one side of the story. With the recent discovery of previously lost Christian writings we have been able to see more fully just how rich and diverse the early Christian movement was. The Gospel of Judas, just as much as any writing from antiquity shows us there were other points of view passionately and reverently espoused by people who called themselves Christian.

These alternative views show us that there were enormous struggles within early Christianity over the proper forms of belief and practice.

Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4) Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4)
Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4) Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4)
Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4) Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4)
Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4) Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4)
Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4) Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4)
Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4) Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4)
Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4) Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4)
Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4) Identity Dialogically Constructed (Jerusalemer Texte Book 4)

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