On Painting (Illustrated)


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Vector-raster painting combines the personal brush style of raster with the formula-based lines and forms of vector. The use of different software offers maximum contrast between sharp and soft and between the uni- and duo-colors of vector and the broad palette of raster. Other popular combinations are manual vector with computer generated, and photography with raster or vector painting and with computer 'generated'.

Some hybrid painting programs e. ArtRage use Bezier curves in the background to smooth lines and curves of raster paintings without intervention of the artist. The painting procedure is spontaneous, stroke by stroke, and the storage format is raster. The smooth, non-raster, non-vector appearance reflects the hybrid basis. Smoothing mitigates the loss of resolution and eases the task of enlargement when the software does not offer scripting. Gallery of vector-raster paintings. The relation between painting and photography is centuries old, but never before has it been so close.

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To place a picture on a digital canvas and transform it into a painting now requires nothing but a push on a button, and a photographer today uses the same software for editing and transforming a photo as the artist for creating a painting. The shared toolbox entails changes in painterly development below and creates a new transition zone between painting and photography.

Style filters can put them in the visual framework of Seurat, Van Gogh, Pollock and many others, while form filters create effects like circle, wave, multiply, mirror, swirl and shear, or they can break up the image in a kaleidoscope of geometric forms that radiate from a central point in perfect symmetry. Mixed media While these transformations are push-button, they are often part of a more complex method that combines several kinds of photographic, computer-generated and painterly aspects in subsequent stages. A possible workflow might be: a screenshot or photo is taken, subjected to a transformation like a swirl and put on the canvas as component of a painting.

Applied as mixed media, new photography makes an important contribution to contemporary visual language. The storage format of all photo-based art is raster. Gallery of photo-based digital art. When the artist increases the height and width of an existing image, its resolution or information density decreases and it will become vague.

Resolution is usually expressed in dpi dots per inch. While the image on the screen already looks sharp at the standard resolution of 72 dpi on the web, a physical carrier needs dpi or more to look sharp. Moreover, the physical carrier is usually much larger in height and width as well.

For a vector painting, where colors and lines are controlled by formulas, enlargement requires nothing but a push on a button. There is no loss of resolution. For raster painting, information will have to be added to fill in the gaps. This is done with the help of enlargement software or by the 're-size' option in the painting program.

Automatic enlargement usually needs manual corrections. Although much progress has been made in automatic enlargement, it remains difficult to fill in the empty space between handmade lines and shapes. Lines become unsteady and crumbly and unintended 'noise' appears along the edges of color patches. The image above shows two different types of online enlargement of the same fragment of Pierre Bonnard's Getting out of the bath. Note that each entails its own noise and deformation. In order to eliminate deformation and obtain a faithful representation of the original, automatic enlargement is usually followed by manual correction.

Depending on the speed of the computer and the chosen size and resolution of the image, correction can be slow or even come to a halt. The screen, of course, is not enlarged: the artist can no longer see the whole image and has to zoom in and out, switching between corrections and reviewing the results. Depending on the size of the file, the slow and detailed process compares to fine needlework.

Strokes and actions that compose the image are recorded and can be repeated in an automated process and without loss of resolution on a larger canvas on the desktop. For artists and collectors alike, a faithful representation of colors is of prime importance.


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To see colors Every computer screen deviates to some degree from the 'true' colors that are set as a standard by the international color convention ICC. These deviations can be corrected by a calibration of the screen. For anyone working with colors it is necessary to calibrate the screen regularly. It is done with a small sensor that calls up a number of colors on the screen, compares them with the standard values and creates a monitor profile which is automatically installed as the default. It runs silently in the background and has only one task: to keep the individual screen fixed to the standard.

Although, confusingly, this profile is listed between a whole range of optional profiles for printing, it should be left alone. It is not embedded in an artwork. To create colors In desktop painting software, the basic profile types have their corresponding palettes and matching color spectrum in the workspace. It is advisable to work in the palette and the spectrum that matches the destination - CMYK for printing, RGB for online display and grayscale for black and white. To display and print colors The artist should embed a color profile in the finished artwork that matches one of two destinations: a webpage or a printing company.

This is important because the color palette for printing is much smaller than the palette of a computer screen. If the artist sends a painting to the printer that has the RGB profile for online display embedded, every color that is not available will in an automated process be translated to neighboring color that can be printed. The result can be disappointing. This is especially relevant for painters working on mobile apps because they have the RGB profile embedded in their artworks.

Most printing companies supply their own profile, tailored to the machinery, ink and choice of paper. They can also prescribe one of the CMYK profiles that are available in most computers. Colors in browsers Only colors are standardized between browsers.


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  5. The artist who wishes to avoid online color deviation has the option to use the 'web safe color palette'. However this seriously limits the choice of colors. In conclusion, three things are needed to see and to represent colors reliably: 1 The screen should be calibrated. Colors of prints at online galleries Galleries use RGB files for online presentation to offer physical prints.

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    ‎A Treatise on Painting (Illustrated) on Apple Books

    Small or large color deviations are inevitable, especially if bright or 'psychedelic' colors have been used. If accurate color representation is important, the artist can order a proof from the gallery before offering prints. Approval of a proof can be mentioned in the description of the painting. Over the centuries art lovers have felt the hand and mood of the painter in brush strokes and paint. Many find that a painting without texture is fine in a book, but doesn't feel right on the wall.

    Though a stylus can be as sensitive to the pressure of the hand as a traditional brush, and the pressure can be made visible on the screen, a digital painting is entirely flat. Some artists accept flatness as a property of digital painting. Many print or project their work on a physical carrier and paint it over, thereby using the computer as a preparatory device and sacrificing the digital characteristics.

    Brushstroke gel is widely used to simulate brush strokes on a printed canvas. Where 'i' indicates a rough ranking of the individual print according to technical and aesthetic quality and 'n' is the size of the edition. Since all prints of a digital artwork are identical, 'i' has no other meaning than to let a buyer know how many prints are still available. The meaning of 'n' is still the same: the size of a limited edition has economic significance for collectors. As in traditional painting, the size of 'n' is set by the artist prior to the first sale. The artist keeps register of the number of copies that are sold.

    In the automated printing process, the unnumbered run-up prints that are traditionally labeled as 'E. A great variety of digital tools brings the artist new means to express thoughts and feelings. On the negative side, the more the computer facilitates their work by offering easy imports, taking over painting processes and offering a wide array of styles and transformations, the more difficult it becomes for painters to develop their own idiom, to take distance from images that are already created and to make the voice of the computer secondary to their own.

    The choice for an app narrows to some extent the development of the artist by limiting him or her to the possibilities and the style of the software. Further development is a process of interaction. A considered choice of a painting app should take into account the risk that a software developer will not keep up forward or backward integration. In such a case paintings created with older or newer versions of an app may no longer be available for transfer or printing. A notorious case in the young history of digital painting is the enlargement software that used to be part of the popular Brushes painting app.

    It was disabled around , forcing a whole generation of digital painters with the exception it seems of David Hockney out of Brushes, starting all over in ArtRage or Procreate with the inevitable learning process and the change of style that comes with a change of software.

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    Their Brushes paintings are trapped in the app at the size of a postcard, unfit for printing, exhibit or selling. Calibration In order to eliminate the color bias of the individual screen, it is important to regularly calibrate see 'about colors'. Sample Even with proper calibration, it is difficult to assess the look and feel of a painting online. Colors to some extent vary with the physical carrier of the artwork and with the type of screen of the spectator.

    Moreover, many online colors in the online presentation simply can not be printed at all, even with the right color profile embedded. The best way to judge a digital painting is by a sample. It should have at least the size of a postcard, be printed on the chosen physical carrier paper, acrylic glass, aluminum etc. Browsing online galleries Collecting digital art starts with browsing and research. To browse the many online portfolios is not yet as easy and pleasant as it can be.

    There is a great deal of room for improvement in search algorithms. At the time of writing the search process has several serious limitations. The artistic value thus measured results in increased visibility for some and decreased visibility or invisibility for others in search results. Though stars and thumbs are a common way to valuate all kinds of products, application to art and literature is an issue. Some critics have posited that the acquisition of thumbs-up is not so much an indication of artistic quality as of social media skills. It should be realized that a collector usually does not know the name of the artist.

    Therefore, if the medium search key doesn't function properly, artists remain invisible. The quality of a search machine is easily assessed from the results. If it is good, a more or less homogenous catch of paintings in a particular medium is brought up. If it presents an incoherent mix of all kinds of digital and non-digital media, there is a visibility issue. Search results can be supplemented at other galleries and Google images. Information about the software that is used to create the painting is seldom available. In order to appreciate originality and technical skill, to distinguish what comes out of the app from what comes out of the artist and perhaps to judge if art claims are justified, some collectors would probably like to know which program was used to create the painting.

    Information about resolution or the number in a limited edition are also often not yet included in artwork descriptions. If collectors tire from so much homogeneity and decide to resume at another time they will have to go through the same images again. Some galleries lower the resolution of paintings to speed up browsing, which results in blurred images.

    While frustrating to artists, it deprives collectors of the more time-efficient method of judging sharp small-size images at first sight. Buying It remains important to buy from a trusted party. While most digital painters are still alive, their work can be bought directly at their website or at online galleries where they show their portfolios.

    Buying directly from the artist has pros and cons. The color quality of the print is a pro, if the artist will embed a proper CMYK color profile for printing, make corrections when needed and has the work printed at a professional printing company. Galleries use the RGB files for online display for prints, with small or larger color deviations.

    On the other hand it is not easy for individual artists to match the attractive display and professional framework with safe payment, delivery and sales conditions that galleries offer. If features like an approved color proof, a sample, a manual signature, protection against duplication and a certificate are not mentioned in the description of the artwork, the collector can ask the artist to make these provisions. For prints that are produced by the gallery, a signature and a barcode or other protective measure can usually be arranged by having the artwork sent through the artist.

    Gallery of preset styles and conversions. The market for digital art is gradually maturing. Collectors start to realize that digital painting is a new visual language that can't be expressed with traditional means. Many problems have been solved. Color representation has become fairly reliable thanks to calibration and the use of color profiles. Digital and physical asset management and a responsible handling of digital files have brought the risk of duplication down to an acceptable level.

    Slowly but steadily, digital paintings are finding their way to museums, auctions and galleries where they meet a new generation of collectors. Yet many highly professional, even pioneering digital painters lack the technical know-how to get their work out of the computer and into the real world. Most rely on an online gallery. Sign in.

    The excellence of the following Treatise is so well known to all in any tolerable degree conversant with the Art of Painting, that it would be almost superfluous to say any thing respecting it, were it not that it here appears under the form of a new translation, of which some account may be expected. Of the original Work, which is in reality a selection from the voluminous manuscript collections of the Author, both in folio and quarto, of all such passages as related to Painting, no edition appeared in print till , though its Author died so long before as the year ; and it is owing to the circumstance of a manuscript copy of these extracts in the original Italian, having fallen into the hands of Raphael du Fresne; that in the former of these years it was published at Paris in a thin folio volume in that language, accompanied with a set of cuts from the drawings of Nicolo Poussin, and Alberti; the former having designed the human figures, the latter the geometrical and other representations.

    Leonardo's Notebooks. Leonardo Da Vinci. Da Vinci Notebooks. A Treatise on Painting. Leonardo da Vinci. The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci. Charles Lewis Hind. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long.

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