The Palestinian Authority welcomed this plan, but declared that until final status, it would still consider the Gaza Strip under Israeli occupation. Many Israelis opposed the plan, and tensions were very high in Israel before and after the Disengagement Plan was approved by the Israeli Knesset on 16 February Israel completed the disengagement on 12 September The Gaza Strip is currently under the control of Hamas. The International Criminal Court ICC is an independent international treaty organisation with its own legislative assembly. Many of the member states recognise the State of Palestine.
In January , King Abdullah of Jordan , after a meeting with the Israeli president Shimon Peres at the World Economic Forum in Davos , declared that his country does not want to rule the West Bank and that "the two-state solution" to the Israeli—Palestinian conflict was the only viable option. If rule over the territory was to be transferred to the kingdom, it would only "replace Israeli military rule with Jordanian military rule The change in status was described by The Independent as "de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine".
Status as an observer state in the UN will allow the State of Palestine to join treaties and specialised UN agencies , including the International Civil Aviation Organisation,  the International Criminal Court, and other organisations for recognised sovereign nations. It shall permit Palestine to claim legal rights over its territorial waters and air space as a sovereign state recognised by the UN, and allow the Palestinian people the right to sue for control of their claimed territory in the International Court of Justice and to bring war-crimes charges against Israel in the International Criminal Court.
Customary international law, including the International Court of Justice's interpretation of the Fourth Geneva Convention in their July ruling, has been widely interpreted as prohibiting Israel from building settlements, due to its clauses prohibiting the transfer of a civilian population into an occupied territory. The participating High Contracting Parties called upon Israel "to fully and effectively respect the Fourth Geneva Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and to refrain from perpetrating any violation of the Convention. They reaffirm the illegality of the settlements in the said territories and of the extension thereof.
This finding also suggests that Israel may be in violation of the Rome Statute one of the primary legal instruments of the International Criminal Court , Article 8, section 2 b viii : "The transfer, directly or indirectly, by the Occupying Power of parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies, or the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of the occupied territory within or outside this territory" see:.
On 31 January , the United Nations independent "International Fact-Finding Mission on Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory" filed a report stating that if Israel did not stop all settlement activity immediately and begin withdrawing all settlers from the West Bank, it potentially might face a case at the International Criminal Court, increasing credibility of any Palestinianin attempt to do so. The UN has, after granting Palestine observer state status, permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as 'The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations',  seen by many as a reflexion of the UN's de facto recognition of the State of Palestine's sovereignty,  and Palestine has started to re-title its name accordingly on postal stamps, official documents and passports.
Critics point out that implementation of the Oslo Accords has not improved conditions for the population under occupation. United Nations Security Council Resolution recognized Israel's rights to "safe and secure borders", which has been interpreted by Israeli government as meaning that Israel had a right to West Bank territory for secure borders. The San Remo Conference , binding under international law, further envisioned the West Bank as being part of a sovereign Jewish state , and arguably encourages, rather than prohibits Jewish settlement in the area.
Furthermore, according to Israeli government, many of the settlements were established on the sites of former Jewish communities that had existed there prior to on land that was legitimately bought, and ethnically cleansed by Arab forces. Israel views the territory as being the subject of legitimate diplomatic dispute and negotiation under international law.
The UN Security Council Resolution condemned the annexation as "a violation of international law". This annexation has not been recognized by other nations, although the United States Congress declared its intention to recognize the annexation a proposal that has been condemned by other states and organizations. Because of the question of Jerusalem's status, no states base their diplomatic missions there and treat Tel Aviv as the capital,  though two states have embassies in the Jerusalem suburb of Mevaseret Zion.
Israel asserts that these territories are not currently claimed by any other state, and that Israel has the right to control them. Israel's position has not been accepted by most countries and international bodies, and the West Bank including East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip are referred to as occupied territories with Israel as the occupying power by most international legal and political bodies,  the rest of the Arab bloc, the UK,  including the EU, the United States,   both the General Assembly and Security Council of the United Nations,  the International Court of Justice, the Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention,  and the Israeli Supreme Court see Israeli West Bank barrier.
Former U. President George W. Bush stated, during his presidency, that he did not expect Israel to return entirely to pre borders, due to "new realities on the ground. Both US President Bill Clinton and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair , who played notable roles in attempts at mediation, noted the need for some territorial and diplomatic compromise on this issue, based on the validity of some of the claims of both sides.
In return, Palestinians would have received concessions of land in other parts of the country. During the period between the Oslo Accords and the Second Intifada beginning in , Israeli officials claimed that the term "occupation" did not accurately reflect the state of affairs in the territories. During this time, the Palestinian population in large parts of the territories had a large degree of autonomy and only limited exposure to the IDF except when seeking to move between different areas. Following the events of the Second Intifada, and in particular, Operation Defensive Shield , most territories, including Palestinian cities Area A , are back under effective Israeli military control, so the discussion along those lines is largely moot.
In the summer of , Israel implemented its unilateral disengagement plan ; about Israeli citizens living in the Gaza Strip were forcibly removed from the territory; some received alternative homes and a sum of money. The Israel Defense Forces vacated Gaza in , but invaded it again in in response to rocket attacks and the abduction of Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit by Hamas. In December , Brazil recognized Palestine as a state with its borders. This action was later criticized by Israel and the United States, who labelled it "counterproductive". There were 3. According to the U.
According to the UN , the Palestinian population was 4. The overwhelming majority of Palestinians are Muslims. Respect for the sanctity of all other divine religions shall be maintained". Arabic is the official language within the Palestinian Authority. Hebrew and English are widely spoken. Consistent with its policy of Jerusalem as a united and indivisible capital of Israel , Israel does not publish exact figures of the number of settlers in East Jerusalem.
Rather the figures of Israelis in Judea and Samaria District are given. Independently from the political composition of its subsequent governments, the number of settlers in the West Bank has grown rapidly and in a relatively straight line since see graphics. The Constitution of the League of Arab States says the existence and independence of Palestine cannot be questioned de jure even though the outward signs of this independence have remained veiled as a result of force majeure.
By the declaration, the PNC empowered its central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and called upon its executive committee to perform the duties of the government-in-exile until its establishment. In December , the PLO also assumed responsibility for civil administration in 17 areas in Hebron. This situation is said to be accepted by the Palestinian population insofar as it is viewed as a temporary arrangement. Since the Battle of Gaza , the two separate territories, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, are divided into a Hamas leadership in the Gaza Strip and a Fatah civil leadership in the autonomous areas of the West Bank.
Each sees itself as the administrator of all Palestinian Territories and does not acknowledge the other one as the official government of the territories. The Palestinian Territories have therefore de facto split into two entities. After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian territories were divided 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority.
Since there are two governments claiming to be the legitimate government of the Palestinian National Authority, one based in the West Bank and one based in the Gaza Strip. The Oslo II Accord created three temporary distinct administrative divisions in the Palestinian territories, the Areas A , B and C , until a final status accord would be established.
The areas are not contiguous, but rather fragmented depending on the different population areas as well as Israeli military requirements. In , after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire that ruled Greater Syria for four centuries — , the British Mandate for Palestine was established.
Large-scale Jewish immigration from abroad, mainly from Eastern Europe took place during the British Mandate, though Jewish immigration started during the Ottoman period. The United Nations Partition Plan proposed a division of Mandate Palestine between an Arab and a Jewish state, with Jerusalem and the surrounding area to be a corpus separatum under a special international regime. The regions allotted to the proposed Arab state included what became the Gaza Strip, and almost all of what became the West Bank, as well as other areas.
The Partition Plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership, but rejected by the Arab leaders. The Arab League threatened to take military measures to prevent the partition of Palestine and to ensure the national rights of the Palestinian Arab population. One day before the expiration of the British Mandate for Palestine, on 14 May , Israel declared its independence within the borders of the Jewish State set out in the Partition Plan. After the war, which Palestinians call the Nakba , the Armistice Agreements established the separation lines between the combatants, leaving Israel in control of some of the areas designated for the Arab state under the Partition Plan, Transjordan in control of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, Egypt in control of the Gaza Strip and Syria in control of the Himmah Area.
In , Jordan annexed the West Bank. Only the United Kingdom formally recognized the annexation of the West Bank, excluding the case of East Jerusalem which was de facto recognized. Israel captured both territories in the Six-Day War, as well as other territory belonging to Egypt and Syria.here
Full text of May UNESCO resolution on 'Occupied Palestine' | The Times of Israel
Since then, these territories have been designated Israeli-occupied territories. Immediately after the war, on 19 June , the Israeli government offered to return the Golan Heights to Syria, the Sinai to Egypt and most of the West Bank to Jordan in exchange for peace. At the Khartoum Summit in September, the Arab parties responded to this overture by declaring "no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel and no negotiations with Israel. UN Security Council Resolution introduced the " Land for Peace " formula for normalizing relations between Israel and its neighbors. This formula was used when Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in in exchange for a peace treaty.
While that treaty mentioned a "linkage" between Israeli—Egyptian peace and Palestinian autonomy, the formerly Egyptian-occupied territory in Gaza was excluded from the agreement, and remained under Israeli control. This was an interim organization created to administer a limited form of Palestinian self-governance in the territories for a period of five years during which final-status negotiations would take place.
The Palestinian Authority carried civil responsibility in some rural areas, as well as security responsibility in the major cities of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Although the five-year interim period expired in , the final status agreement has yet to be concluded despite attempts such as the Camp David Summit , the Taba summit , and the unofficial Geneva Accords. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The territories captured and occupied by Israel in that were part of the British Mandate for Palestine.
This article is about the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. For the historical region, see Palestine region. For the modern-day state, see State of Palestine. For all territories occupied by Israel, see Israeli-occupied territories. For other uses, see Palestinian territories disambiguation. Palestinian Territories according to a Green Line based definition.
Arabic Hebrew. Palestinians Jews Samaritans. Used in Gaza Strip since Used since Used in West Bank since See also: History of Palestine and Timeline of the name Palestine. See also: Borders of Israel. Area assigned for a Jewish state. Area assigned for an Arab state. Planned Corpus separatum with the intention that Jerusalem would be neither Jewish nor Arab.
Israeli controlled territory from Egyptian and Jordanian controlled territory from until This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Positions on Jerusalem. State of Palestine. Officeholders whose status is disputed are shown in italics. National symbols. Flag National anthem. Legislative Council. Administrative divisions. Foreign relations. Other countries Atlas. See also: International law and the Arab—Israeli conflict and Status of territories captured by Israel.
Main article: Palestinian people. See also: Demographics of Palestine and Demographics of the Palestinian territories. Main article: Governorates of the Palestinian National Authority. Part of a series on the. Achaemenid Empire Yehud Medinata. Rashidun Jund Filastin , Jund al-Urdunn. Modern evolution of Palestine v t e. The red line is the "International Administration" proposed in the Sykes—Picot Agreement , the dashed blue line is the Zionist Organization proposal at the Paris Peace Conference , and the thin blue line refers to the final borders of the —48 Mandatory Palestine.
An ongoing British Mandate was proposed to keep "the sanctity of Jerusalem and Bethlehem ", in the form of an enclave from Jerusalem to Jaffa , including Lydda and Ramle. The proposal included a Corpus Separatum for Jerusalem , extraterritorial crossroads between the non-contiguous areas, and Jaffa as an Arab exclave. The Jewish population had increased from 83, in to , in Neither Israel's annexation nor Palestine's claim over East Jerusalem has been internationally recognized.
Palestine portal Israel portal. Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 10 June International assistance to the Palestinians after Oslo: political guilt, wasted money. Routledge studies on the Arab-Israeli conflict. London and New York: Routledge. December Archived from the original PDF on 16 February Retrieved 3 January United Nations. Retrieved 29 November Berkeley Journal of International law.
Council of the European Union. The Council highlights the importance of unhindered work of civil society both in Israel and the occupied Palestinian territory and follows recent developments in this regard with concern. Archived from the original PDF on 6 July Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 9 October Adds New Name: "State of Palestine " ". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 10 January International Business Times. Retrieved 22 October Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 21 November Retrieved on Access to Jerusalem and the Holy Places".
Jerusalem:Points Beyond Friction and Beyond. Kluwer Law International. Bearing Witness — Eight weeks in Palestine. London: Metete. International Court of Justice. Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 27 September International Committee of the Red Cross. Archived from the original on 7 February Archived from the original on 3 June Publishers, pp. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians Now these are the only nations who use circumcision.
We do not know whether they formed the majority but we may assume with some certainly that they did so when grouped together with the Samaritans. The government of Israel and some supporters have, at times, disputed this position of the international community. In , Andrew Sanger explained the situation as follows: "Israel claims it no longer occupies the Gaza Strip, maintaining that it is neither a Stale nor a territory occupied or controlled by Israel, but rather it has 'sui generis' status.
Pursuant to the Disengagement Plan, Israel dismantled all military institutions and settlements in Gaza and there is no longer a permanent Israeli military or civilian presence in the territory. However the Plan also provided that Israel will guard and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, will continue to maintain exclusive authority in Gaza air space, and will continue to exercise security activity in the sea off the coast of the Gaza Strip as well as maintaining an Israeli military presence on the Egyptian-Gaza border.
Israel continues to control six of Gaza's seven land crossings, its maritime borders and airspace and the movement of goods and persons in and out of the territory. Egypt controls one of Gaza's land crossings. Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone that stretches deep into Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone they are shot on sight. Gaza is also dependent on israel for inter alia electricity, currency, telephone networks, issuing IDs, and permits to enter and leave the territory. Israel also has sole control of the Palestinian Population Registry through which the Israeli Army regulates who is classified as a Palestinian and who is a Gazan or West Banker.
Since aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry. Dowty Tibet and a militarily occupied territory, please see the article Military occupation. The "longest military occupation" description has been described in a number of ways, including: "The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times,"  " So this is thirty-three years old [in ], pushing the record,"  "Israel is the only modern state that has held territories under military occupation for over four decades.
The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade. This entire region, as stated above, was not occupied exclusively by the Israelites, for the plain along the coast in the south belonged to the Philistines, and that in the north to the Phoenicians, while in the east-Jordan country, the Israelitic possessions never extended farther than the Arnon Wadi al-Mujib in the south, nor did the Israelites ever settle in the most northerly and easterly portions of the plain of Bashan.
To-day the number of inhabitants does not exceed , Palestine, and especially the Israelitic state, covered, therefore, a very small area, approximating that of the state of Vermont. Etymological strictness would require it to denote exclusively the narrow strip of coast-land once occupied by the Philistines, from whose name it is derived. It is, however, conventionally used as a name for the territory which, in the Old Testament, is claimed as the inheritance of the pre-exilic Hebrews; thus it may be said generally to denote the southern third of the province of Syria.
Except in the west, where the country is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, the limit of this territory cannot be laid down on the map as a definite line. The modern subdivisions under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire are in no sense conterminous with those of antiquity, and hence do not afford a boundary by which Palestine can be separated exactly from the rest of Syria in the north, or from the Sinaitic and Arabian deserts in the south and east; nor are the records of ancient boundaries sufficiently full and definite to make possible the complete demarcation of the country.
Even the convention above referred to is inexact: it includes the Philistine territory, claimed but never settled by the Hebrews, and excludes the outlying parts of the large area claimed in Num. However, the Hebrews themselves have preserved, in the proverbial expression " from Dan to Beersheba " Judg. Eastward there is no such definite border.
The River Jordan, it is true, marks a line of delimitation between Western and Eastern Palestine ; but it is practically impossible to say where the latter ends and the Arabian desert begins. Perhaps the line of the pilgrim road from Damascus to Mecca is the most convenient possible boundary. Palaistine Syria, or simply Palaistine, is applied to what may be identified as the southern part of Syria, comprising the region between Phoenicia and Egypt.
Although some of Herodotus' references to Palestine are compatible with a narrow definition of the coastal strip of the Land of Israel, it is clear that Herodotus does call the "whole land by the name of the coastal strip. Herodotus, who had traveled through the area, would have had firsthand knowledge of the land and its people. Bk ii, Ch As thus used, it refers strictly and only to the country of the Philistines , in the southwest corner of the land. Feldman, whose view differs from that of Robinson, thinks that Josephus, when referring to Palestine , had in mind only the coastal region, writing: "Writers on geography in the first century [CE] clearly differentiate Judaea from Palestine.
Jewish writers, notably Philo and Josephus , with few exceptions refer to the land as Judaea , reserving the name Palestine for the coastal area occupied [formerly] by the Philistines. See: p. Hebrew Union College Annual. Instead, they avoided the toponym altogether, turning it into an ethnonym. Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 60 Braude: vol. This parallels a shift in the Septuagint's translation of Hebrew pelistim. Before Judges, it uses the neutral transliteration phulistiim, but beginning with Judges it switches to the pejorative allophuloi.
The first is a general map of the country in which the boundaries extend far beyond the frontiers of the Mutasarflik of Jerusalem, which was, until then, the standard delineation of Palestine. The northern borders of this map include the city of Tyre Sur and the Litani River, thus encompassing all of the Galilee and parts of southern Lebanon, as well as districts of Nablus, Haifa and Akka—all of which were part of the Wilayat of Beirut until the end of the war.
Like Pharaoh before him, Herod, having been frustrated in his original efforts, now seeks to achieve his objectives by implementing a program of infanticide. And finally, in perhaps the most vivid parallel of all, the present narrative uses virtually the same words of the earlier one to provide the information that the coast is clear for the herds safe return: here, in Matthew , "go [back]… for those who sought the child's life are dead; there, in Exodus , go back… for all the men who sought your life are dead.
This would make the Israelites "Palestinians" not just in geographical and political terms under the British Mandate, both Jews and Arabs living in the country were defined as Palestinians , but in ethnic and broader cultural terms as well. While this does not conform to the conventional view, or to the understanding of most Jews and Arabs, for that matter , it is not easy to either prove or disprove. For although the Bible speaks at length about how the Israelites "took" the land, it is not a history book to draw reliable maps from.
There is nothing in the extra-biblical sources, including the extensive Egyptian materials, to document the sojourn in Egypt or the exodus so vividly described in the Bible and commonly dated to the thirteenth century. Biblical scholar Moshe Weinfeld sees the biblical account of the exodus, and of Moses and Joshua as founding heroes of the "national narration," as a later rendering of a lived experience that was subsequently either "forgotten" or consciously repressed — a textbook case of the "invented tradition" so familiar to modern students of ethnicity and nationalism.
SBL Press. Judah's reason s for submitting to Assyrian hegemony, at least superficially, require explanation, while at the same time indications of its read-but-disguised resistance to Assyria must be uncovered The political and military sprawl of the Assyrian empire during the late Iron Age in the southern Levant, especially toward its outer borders, is not quite akin to the single dominating hegemony envisioned by most discussions of hegemony and subversion. In the case of Judah it should be reiterated that Judah was always a vassal state, semi-autonomous and on the periphery of the imperial system, it was never a fully-integrated provincial territory.
The implications of this distinction for Judah's relationship with and experience of the Assyrian empire should not be underestimated; studies of the expression of Assyria's cultural and political powers in its provincial territories and vassal states have revealed notable differences in the degree of active involvement in different types of territories.
Indeed, the mechanics of the Assyrian empire were hardly designed for direct control over all its vassals' internal activities, provided that a vassal produced the requisite tribute and did not provoke trouble among its neighbors, the level of direct involvement from Assyria remained relatively low. For the entirety of its experience of the Assyrian empire, Judah functioned as a vassal state, rather than a province under direct Assyrian rule, thereby preserving at least a certain degree of autonomy, especially in its internal affairs. Meanwhile, the general atmosphere of Pax Assyriaca in the southern Levant minimized the necessity of and opportunities for external conflict.
That Assyrians, at least in small numbers, were present in Judah is likely — probably a qipu and his entourage who, if the recent excavators of Ramat Rahel are correct, perhaps resided just outside the capital — but there is far less evidence than is commonly assumed to suggest that these left a direct impression of Assyria on this small vassal state The point here is that, despite the wider context of Assyria's political and economic power in the ancient Near East in general and the southern Levant in particular, Judah remained a distinguishable and semi-independent southern Levantine state, part of but not subsumed by the Assyrian empire and, indeed, benefitting from it in significant ways.
Full text of May 2017 UNESCO resolution on ‘Occupied Palestine’
They retained it. Christianity did remain the majority religion, but it lost the privileges it had enjoyed. In the popular conscience, this concept established a bond between the three monotheistic religions. If Ahmad ibn Tulun was interred on the slope of the Muqattam , Isa ibn Musa al-Nashari and Takin were laid to rest in Jerusalem in and , as were their Ikhshidid successors and Kafir. Boas London: Routledge. Retrieved 8 September Jewish Virtual Library.
Retrieved 15 December Biblical Hebrew served as the sacred language, while modern Hebrew Ivrit remained for the time being the language of a politically committed minority that had devoted itself to a revival of "Hebrew culture. Israel a history, translated from Hebrew by Anthony Berris. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts , p.
United Nations. Westminster John Knox Press. The desert served as an eastern boundary in times when Transjordan was occupied. But when Transjordan became an unsettled region, a pasturage for desert nomads, then the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea formed the natural eastern boundary of Western Palestine. Bk vii, Ch Earnest Cary , vol. The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea. Oxford University Press. Up until this date the Bar Kokhba documents indicate that towns, villages and ports where Jews lived were busy with industry and activity.
Afterwards there is an eerie silence, and the archaeological record testifies to little Jewish presence until the Byzantine era, in En Gedi. If we accept Broshi's population estimates, which appear to be confirmed by the results of recent research, it follows that the estimates for the population during the Iron Age must be set at a lower figure. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics.
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